Wednesday, October 31, 2007

One more time... Greek/Hebrew/English in Logos

Dave Hooton made a good suggestion for finding Hebrew/Greek word pairs on the Logos newsgroup. He wrote:

1. Define a collection with LXX and Hebrew bibles e.g. LXX, LHI (Lexham Hebrew) and Tov
2. Search the collection by verse, using the syntax
Hebrew-word OR Greek-word e.g. הִנֵּה OR ιδου
3. The search results will show graphically where the words align in the bibles and where they do not!
You can display the results in Greek or Hebrew (choose which bible to display).
You can export the results to a Verse List.
I'm still not seeing a way to generate the kind of list that BW7 does for finding all the ways a Hebrew word is translated in the LXX or all the Hebrew words that a LXX Greek word is used to translate.
Using a combination of a BHS/LXX collection and then linking texts, I can, however, take Logos one more step: Using Dave's suggestion, I created a collection composed of the BHS and the LXX. With this collection, I can conduct a search to see how often or not any Greek/Hebrew lemma is rendered by a certain Hebrew/Greek lemma.
For example, I want to find all the times that the Greek lemma λειπω with any prefix is translating a form of the Hebrew עזב and conversely anytime a form of עזב is translated with a form of λειπω.
What I did is ran an Advanced Search, use Textual Query with the parameters:
lemma:({el}*λειπω{/}) OR lemma:marks({he}marks(עזב){/})
and used my Resource Collection and looked by Bible Verse.
Here's what the results look like:
By linking up the LXX, BHS, English versions, and the Tov text, I can see fairly well how the words are related.

Tov Parallel Aligned Hebrew-Greek in Logos and BW7: Follow-up

In light of the previous discussion on the implementation of Tov's work, here's a quick follow-up on what it looks like in Logos and BW7.
LOGOS: The text and the relationship between Hebrew/Greek words is very easy to 'see' in Logos. The data is not tagged, however (hence, the inability to search for lemmas), but basic searches can be run on particular forms. (Note that one can use wildcards at least to find, for example, a variety of forms of nouns: λογ* will find all forms of λογος.) This resource can be "linked" (using the chain-link icon) to other texts.
BibleWorks7: There is a rather extensive implementation of Tov in BW7 that is best understood by clicking on the graphic. Note that Tov does run in a window separate from the main BW7 window, but both can be open, and double-clicking a text in the Tov window moves the focus to that verse in the main window.

Tuesday, October 30, 2007

Using the right tool... BibleWorks7 and Logos

I have been thinking about how the Greek word ιδου is best translated. I remember the resonance of the KJV's rendering with "Behold!" but that is not a word used in modern idiom. What are some better, contemporary alternatives? Some questions that I asked to get a perspective on this topic include:

  1. How does the NRSV translate ιδου?
  2. Knowing that the most common Hebrew equivalent is הנה, what English words are used to translate it?
  3. How did the LXX translators render הנה?
  4. What Hebrew words did the LXX translators render with ιδου?
How would I answer these questions using BibleWorks7 or Logos? For either program, one of the quick and easy ways to see how the word was translated in the KJV is to use Strong's. Using a version linked to Strong's (KJV or NAU [=NASB] in BW7; in Logos, there is a separate Strong's Enhanced Lexicon resource, and it is also linked to the KJV, NASB, NRSV [RevInterlinear], and some Greek texts), find the desired word, and one will see the various ways it is translated in the KJV. The following results are returned:
<2400> ιδου, idou
Meaning: look, behold
Origin: from 1491a, used as a demonstrative particle
Usage: assure(1), behold(145), here(3), lo(1), long(1), look(8), see(1), then(1), there(1), when(1), why(1), yet(1).
<02009> הנה hinneh (243d)
Meaning: lo! behold!
Origin: prol. of 2005
Usage: after all(1), behold(938), go(1), here(41), how(5), if(18), if he sees(1), if the has indeed(1), indeed(11), lo(16), look(3), now(3), now*(1), see(4), surely(2), there(2), unless(1).

To find more detailed results and see what words are used in more modern English versions, however, let's see what each program can do.


  1. To answer the first question, I would use the morphologically tagged Greek NT (BNM) and search for ιδου. When my search results appear, I would then type NRS (and other version you may want) in the command line and those results would immediately be converted to the new version. This works great and is a good way to compare a number of versions quickly. The problem, however, is that when I switch versions, I lose the highlighting that indicates which word is actually translating the ιδου.
  2. Answering the second question is similar to the first except that this time I would use the WTM to find הִנֵּה. The same problem of losing hit highlighting occurs when switching versions.
  3. To answer this question, the tool to use is the CATSS/Tov Hebrew-Greek Parallel Aligned Text that is included with BW7. The graphic below shows what this tools looks like in BW7. Note the Hebrew and LXX texts at the top, an analysis window in the middle showing each Hebrew/Greek word used (and there are hover popups for explaining some of the more arcane abbreviations), and a lower window with the appropriate lexicons. Using the "Search for BHS-LXX Equivalents" tool, one simply enters the lemma and a frequency listing is returned. Clicking on a particular result will cause that text to appear.
  4. Same procedure as the previous question, except that one enters the Greek word.

    HERE is a listing of the results generated for questions 3 and 4 in BW7.
NOTE: The BW7 implementation of this aligned text has other powerful features. Using the Search tool, one can search for specific Hebrew/Greek forms and instances where one is looking just for a Hebrew / Greek combination of words.


  1. Here is where Logos has a decided advantage because of its Reverse Interlinear Bibles. For the NT, there is both a version for the NRSV and the ESV. (For the OT, only the ESV is available.) After opening up the NRSV English-Greek Reverse Interlinear NT, one can run a Greek morphological search on the word desired. The search results highlight the English word rendered by the Greek word, and to make the comparison even easier to see, one can generate a listing of "Aligned Hits in Context" that looks like THIS. One can also generate a nice concordance view that is even more helpful.
  2. A similar procedure to the first question is used here except the ESV English-Hebrew Reverse Interlinear OT is used. Run a search to find the הִנֵּה form. HERE is the aligned hits in context generated and the matching concordance listing.
  3. The Tov Parallel Aligned Hebrew-Aramaic and Greek Texts of Jewish Scripture is available in the Original Languages or Gold libraries in Logos or for separate purchase.
    Open that resource to a verse which has the הִנֵּה form. (Use the a verse generated in #2.) Right click, choose the selected text, and run a search on this resource. (Note: you may have to edit your search somewhat if it includes a prefix or suffix of any kind.) Here's where I can use some help, because I have not been able to find a way to generate a list of all the verses which have the Hebrew word that indicate the matching Greek word in the LXX. The closest I've come is to export my results to a Verse List, choose text and 3 columns, and then use properties to select BHS and LXX to show up in parallel. All highlighting has disappeared however.
  4. Go through the steps as in the previous question, but choose the Greek word instead. You can use the results here to see the Hebrew words used to translate ιδου, and then these can be displayed using the Concordance feature to organize the desired results in summary form like THIS.

NOTE: A significant limitation of Logos is that one cannot search for Hebrew or Greek lemmas in the "Parallel Aligned Hebrew-Aramaic and Greek Texts of Jewish Scripture." (I was able to conduct this particular search, because I was looking for the specific הִנֵּה / ιδου form.) If there is a way to search for lemmas to generate the aligned lists, please let me know...

Here is a screenshot showing how some of these resources look in Logos.

So, the implementation of the Tov Parallel Aligned Hebrew-Aramaic and Greek Texts of Jewish Scripture is much more versatile and powerful in BW7 (though perhaps not as attractive in the browsing format). Logos, however, has the advantage of the reverse interlinears to aid in the work of determining Greek/Hebrew underlying the English. (Again, if anyone knows how in Logos to search for Hebrew / Greek roots in the Tov or how to display Greek words rendering a Hebrew word, let me know. Thanks.)

Monday, October 29, 2007

Logos - New video tip

Rick Brannan has posted a new video tip on the Logos Bible Software Blog. It details a good method for highlighting references to non-biblical passages in BDAG.

(Biblical passages can already be highlighted as hits in BDAG. To enable highlighting of the particular Bible reference to which you are keylinking, use: View > Visual Filters > choose the Resource you want > click on "Active Bible Reference" and then "Add ->" By default this will highlight the verse reference in yellow, buy you can modify that in the Details.)
It also show the value of generating a concordance to aid in the reading of such resources as the Apostolic Fathers, Philo, Josephus, etc.

Wednesday, October 24, 2007

Bible Software Updates

Catching up on some stuff...

  • The latest Christian Computing Magazine (CCM) has an updated review of PocketBible for Windows. In addition to many of the features you normally would expect with Bible software, the main strength of this program is the synchronization of annotations and bookmarks between the desktop and PDA versions. I also like the fact that it can be run from a USB FlashDrive and can even be ordered on such a drive. Prices start at $30 for the program alone, but will quickly rise as you order bundled or other resources. This is a nice program, but it really is not designed for original language study.
  • CCM also is advertising a special offer for a limited edition of Bible Explorer 4. Regularly $65, it is on sale for $16 (or $10 for 5+ copies). (This does indeed appear to be a special offer whose pricing you cannot otherwise get by following links on their web site.) It is more of a popular as compared to a more academic program like their companion WORDsearch7 program, but you can check the contents of the package HERE. I've downloaded the free edition which has only a few books but plenty of free, public domain resources that can be added. It has a decent interface, and with the purchase of a few more books may be all the program some people need.

Sunday, October 21, 2007

New BibleWorks Tip 1.7

A new tip (1.7) has been posted on the BIbleWorks Classroom Resources page. It shows how to generate lists of words based on frequency using the Word List Manager. After generating the list you want, it shows how to use it in the Graphical Search Engine, and then how to apply some kind of coloring to those words using the Color Selection Window. The final result is a text that highlights words according to the frequency parameters you have established. Very nice.

More on new Microsoft fonts

In an earlier post I talked about the new Microsoft fonts, especially with regard to their support of Greek and Hebrew. Rodney Decker at NT Resources has recently added some comments. He only comments on the "C" fonts, and he neglected noting that Segoe UI does have full polytonic Greek support. Be sure to look at Phil Gons' comment and Decker's PDF, however, to see how to get the fonts by downloading the PowerPoint 2007 viewer rather than needing to have Vista or Office 2007. For now, I'm still sticking with Cardo, because it has all the English, Greek, and Hebrew I need.

Tuesday, October 9, 2007

BibleWorks7 (and Logos?) linking to CEV, Message, TNIV, etc.

I just posted on the BibleWorks forum a guide to using the External Links Editor in BW7 to link to some other translations on the BibleGateway site. A followup post also shows how to get the Good News = TEV linked as well.
As for Logos, I can create external links to these translations by customizing a toolbar and adding a link to an Internet resource, but I haven't figured out yet how to pass through the book/chapter/verse parameters. It probably takes some knowledge of scripting which I do not have. Maybe someone who does know can share that info here. BTW, the link info is:

where the version # at the end of the line can be changed to whatever version you want. E.g,
TNIV=72, CEV=46, Message=65 etc.

Monday, October 8, 2007

BibleWorks Classroom Tips

BibleWorks has recently posted a couple new "Classroom Tips."

  • Tip 1.5 has some suggestions on using tabs effectively and includes some tab context files that can be downloaded. I had not really paid much attention to saving sets of tab files. When I get a little time, I'll post on the tab settings I use.
  • Tip 1.6 provides examples for "Working Quickly on the Command Line."

Wednesday, October 3, 2007

Dead Sea Scrolls Resources

I'm not sure how long this site has been available, but it is new to me. The Biblical Archaeology Society has a very fine site related to the Dead Sea Scrolls. There are three major sections--Introduction, Discovery and Publication, Library and Learning--each with a number of subsections. I especially found the timeline, cast of characters, and caves with their contents to be useful.

Tuesday, October 2, 2007

Biblical Resources from the British Museum

In my wandering on the web, I came across the online resources at the British Museum. Their Online Gallery of Sacred Texts features 66 texts with descriptions and high-res images. There are selections from the Gospel of Thomas, Codices Sinaiticus and Alexandrinus, and much more. Also check out the Interactive Map. Also took a look at the "Turning the Pages" section. Some really fine examples from such books as the Lisbon Hebrew Bible, a 1700 Bible from Ethiopia, the Lindisfarne Gospels, and more are included.